Created and Written by Daniel M. Kirchmann


© 1982 by Daniel Kirchmann

The theory only made sense, that is, gave finite predictions for measurable effects, if it was written so that each and every fundamental particle had zero mass.

Eleven Science Questions for the New Century

The quality of a theory is the relation between basic assumptions and derivations.
The luxon theory is able to summarize the law of conservation of energy, the special theory of relativity, E=mc2, and the fundamental physical concepts of mass and energy into only three words:

tardyons are luxons

Each matter with rest mass (tardyons) consists of particles with light velocity (luxons)
All theoretical objections against this hypothesis fail due to the existence of glueballs.
In September 1997 out of pure light, physicists create particles of matter. This proof: You can make really every type of matter out of luxons - this table and this chair and this paper and everything.
An extraordinary success of luxon theory!

The luxon hypothesis is not new. The Standard Model is a luxon theory:

The Higgs boson can accommodate the masses of fundamental particles, which would otherwise be massless (luxons) due to the underlying symmetry of the Standard Model. (Higgs Physics Group at DØ) (mirror)

"The particle called Higgs boson is in fact the quantum of one of the components of a Higgs field. In empty space, the Higgs field acquires a non-zero value, which permeates every place in the universe at all times. The vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs field is constant and equal to 246 GeV. The existence of this non-zero VEV plays a fundamental role: it gives mass to every elementary particle, including to the Higgs boson itself." (Wikepedia) (mirror)

"The idea that mass is not intrinsic like charge or spin is made even more plausible by the idyllic notion of zero mass for all quarks and leptons. In this case, they would obey a satisfying symmetry, chiral symmetry, in which their spins would forever be associated with their direction of motion." (Leon Lederman: The god particle)

" The Standard Model weak interaction theory takes this idea a step further. In formulating that theory, it became evident that the equations did not allow the introduction of mass for the particles. The theory made sense— that is, it gave finite predictions for some measurable effects, but only if it was written so that each and every fundamental particle had zero mass. [...]In the Standard Model the field that forms such a condensate is called the Higgs field. Particles get their mass through interactions with this field. In such a theory, mass is just another form of interaction energy." (Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos - Eleven Science Questions for the New Century)   (PDF)

The luxon theory states an inner movement in common bodies with the velocity of light!
This seems to be a very uncommon statement.
Nevertheless, it is confirmed by the standard model of the proton and the neutron. These elementary particles have an inner movement with the velocity of light. Their inner gluons move with the velocity of light.

There is an unambiguous physical extrapolation , according to which the most elementary particles within tardyons have the velocity of light ( Sexl/Raab/Streeruwitz 1980, page 72):

The smaller a formation is, the bigger is, according to the de-Broglie-relation

the velocity of the particles contained in it.

The smaller and the more elementary a formation is, the more the velocity of the particles contained in it is near the velocity of light, the more luxon-like the particles become! The smaller the considered space is, the bigger is the part of the rest energy of an atom which is based on a part of the movement energy.

Luxons and tardyons

The independent existence of two basically different types of matter is the ultimate mystery of modern physics.

There are luxons, there are tardyons.

"Luxons" are all particles which always move with the velocity of light in empty space. These are every type of electromagnetic radiation, gluons and maybe gravitons.
"Tardyons" are all particles which always move with a velocity below the velocity of light. These are protons, electrons, muons, atoms - the common matter we already know.

Particles are either luxons or tardyons. These are the two principal types of particles. The special theory of relativity differentiates only between luxons and tardyons.

Luxons and tardyons have opposite characteristics:
Luxons    v = c
Tardyons    v < c
In empty space, luxons always move with one speed. The movement type of luxons is pure.   Tardyons have many different speeds. The movement type of tardyons is miscellaneous.
Luxons have a speed which is designated by fundamental laws of nature.
They move with the absolute velocity of speed c (299.792.458 m/s), which is the centering point of space-time.
  The movement of tardyons is determined by the velocity of luxons. All transformation equations of the special theory of relativity are related to this velocity c:

For luxons time is no time flow. For   v =c  there is no solution of the equation :
  Tardyons have half-times.
Out of pure luxons, nature create mater and antimatter (both are tardyons).   Every tardyon has an antiparticle (e.g., the antiparticle of the electron is the positron). If it collides with its antiparticle, it disintegrates into luxons.
Movement is part of the nature and of the definition of the energy of luxons. Their rest energy is zero. Movement is an existential condition of the energy of luxons.   Non-moving tardyons have energy. Movement is no existential condition for tardyon energy! Tardyons have a rest energy.

  The common origin of luxons and tardyons is still completely unknown!

Why, after all, did nature create two types of matters which are so different from each other? What was its reason for this? I wish somebody could feel with me the enormous depth of the abyss which I see within the explanation here.
It seems that nature created two basically different types of energy. One with movement and one without.
Which type of energy is more fundamental, the energy of luxons or the energy of tardyons? Or do both types of energy have a common origin?
Maybe one type of matter is enough for an explanation of the phenomenons.

Before starting with the question why there are two types of matter, it should first be tried to find out whether there are two types at all.

Normally, simplicity is the origin of complexity. This is an experience. The three particles proton, neutron and electron form the entire complex periodic system of elements.
The more basic type of matter must be the more simple one, thus the luxons, because the laws of nature assume luxons as the most simple form of matter.
The cause of mass necessary can`t have mass. If particles are the cause of mass it is clear what they are:
massless particles.

The luxon theory say:

Every type of solid matter is a combination of luxons !


The proton is made of two "u" (up) quarks and one "d" (down) quark, and the neutron of one "u" and two "d" quarks. The rest-masses of the proton and neutron are 938.3 and 939.6 MeV units. The units are the equivalent energies in mega-electron volts.

The quarks are held together by the exchange of objects called gluons.
The velocity of these gluons is  v = 299.792.458 m/s = c (the velocity of light).
Gluons are luxons!

We can think of the gluons behaving like stretched springs which keep the quarks confined within the hadron. The stretched springs have potential energy which must then be added to the mass energy of the quarks (this type of mass is called the "rest mass").

For the proton and neutron the spring energy is much greater than the rest masses. An analysis of the rest masses gives values of about 5 MeV and 8 MeV for the "u" and "d" quarks respectively, so they are almost massless in comparison with the energy stored in the springs which is nearly 1 GeV.

The standard model says: Only 1.88 % of a man is rest mass. 98.12% is something else. The luxon theory says: 0% of a man is rest mass. 100% is luxon inertia.
However one can also consider something called the dynamical (relativistic) mass. Two different types of mass for quarks - relativistic mass and bare mass (u and d) which is sometimes quoted as 5 meV. However, because of confinement in a proton they acquire an effective mass of approximately 300 meV i.e. 1/3 the mass of the proton. This effective mass is due to the interactions with gluons etc. in the proton.
E = mc2 famously suggests the idea that you can get a lot of energy out of a small amount of mass. But that's not what Einstein had in mind, really, and you won't find that equation in the original paper. The way he wrote it was M = e/c2 and the original paper had a title that was a question, which was, "Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?" So right from the beginning Einstein was thinking about the question of could you explain mass in terms of energy. It turned out that the realization of that vision, the understanding of how not only a little bit of mass but most of the mass, 90 percent or 95 percent of the mass of matter as we know it, comes from energy. We build it up out of massless gluons and almost massless quarks, producing mass from pure energy. That's the deeper vision.

Frank Wilczek
Theoretical Physicist
After all, the characteristics of which tardyons have more than luxons have, are caused by the luxons of which they were composed:

The movement of luxons is pure (in empty space it is always 299.792.458 m/s); the movement of tardyons is mixed, composed. No tardyon can move faster than the luxons of which it is composed, the movement of which mixes its different speeds. This is a surprisingly simple explanation for the insuperable wall which is the velocity of light!

„Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the particles of Light which enter their Composition?
The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies, is very conformable to the Course of Nature, which seems delighted with Transmutations. [...] And among such various and strange transmutations, why may not Nature change Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies?“

IsaacNewton - Optics 1704, Book Three, Part 1 Qu.30

H. Zeigler: The first unambiguous formulation of the luxon hypothesis
Dr. Albrecht Giese: Relativity without Einstein?
M.B. van der Mark and G.W. ’t Hooft: Light is Heavy  (PDF)
J.G. Williamson and M.B. van der Mark: Is the electron a photon with toroidal topology? (PDF)
Willis H. Thompson: Unified Field Theory From a Different Perspective
Robert Rutkiewicz: A General Theory of Particles and Forces
Russel Clark send me this Email.
Fernando Cleto Nunes Pereira: The Unit of Phisics
Bob Toben, Fred Wolf and Jack Sarfatti: Space-time and beyond, 1975.
Steven E. Kaufman: Unified Reality Theory:
Ray Tomes: Towards a Theory Of Everything: Matter as a Solution to Maxwell's Equations
Scott Barclay: Gravitational / Universal Engineering
Domingo S. Acosta: THE INERTIAL MASS
Dan Dunn: The Gilbert Letter
John T. Nordberg: Grand Unification Theory: The Ball-of-Light Particle Model.
Vernon Brown: The Photonic Theory of Everything.

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