THE CAUSE OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The second law of thermodynamics is based on the laws of probability.
The laws of entropy are statistical laws. If one applies such laws
in the direction of the future, then one gets correct results which
are in extraordinary correlation with empiric reality. However, if one
applies these laws in the direction of the past, then one gets
results completely contradicting empiric reality.
This is a serious problem since the laws of nature are time-symmetric.
For mixing in the direction of the future, other laws are applicable than
those for mixing in the
direction of the past. This stands in
contradiction to the time symmetry of the laws of nature.
towards high entropy in the future is no surprise. The high-entropy
states are, in a sense, the `natural` states, which do not need
further explanation. But the low-entropy states in the past are a
7. 6 If we use the argument depicted in Fig. 7. 5. in the
reverse direction in time we `retrodict` that the entropy should
also increase into the past, from ist value now. This is in
gross contradiction with observation. (p. 317)
Dr Breuer writes:
the examples cited, a phenomenon appears which is already anchored in
the laws of nature. The laws of nature all allow - with a rare
exception in weak nuclear power - for a variety of potential natural
processes. If these are then subdivided with the aid of subjective
knowledge of time into future-oriented and past-oriented events and
compares them with observations, then one notices that only half of
them occur, the future-oriented events.
Why does nature only select future-oriented events and ignore the
Why can the law of entropy only be meaningfully applied to the future and
not to the past?
Because nothing does apply to the past!
Because the past does not exist!
Consequently there is no past to which any laws of nature apply.
What we know and designate
as “the past“ is nothing more than documents in the
present. Another type of past cannot be proven to exist and is
The basic probability of
the laws of nature relates exclusively to the future and the
phenomenon of the past is only its consequence.
This is the reason why the
entropy time arrow points in the same direction as the historical
time arrow. For this reason, the static laws of thermodynamics
can only be applied to the future and not to the past.
A choice is not made
between things past because all past is factual and, more precisely,
as photos, books, petrification, annual rings of a tree, traces and
imprints in the present. The past does not exist and will not exist
in the future either.
It is deduced from present-time documents. It itself has no reality and
existence - no more.
It is only possible on
paper to depict the past and the future simultaneously. For
this reason alone one can paint an arrow from the future to the
past. But this image has nothing to do with reality. In actuality,
the entropy reduction arrow in the direction of the past is invalid.
This has its simple cause in the fact that no past exists at all to
which it could point.
The error thus lies in
simultaneously depicting past and future so that their images
The error lies in
confusing the relationship between these images (of past and future)
with the image of the real relationship between past and future. For
this is precisely an enormous difference!
Both the historical time
arrow as well as the entropy time arrow follow from the potentiality
of the future.
We only possess our
knowledge of the past from such presently existing documents like the
photo of the hourglass. We draw conclusions on the relationship to
the past from such documents.
past has been destroyed. Since no past exists, the arrow in the
direction of the past
is invalid as well. There is no relationship
to the past.
This means: We imagine
a relationship to the past. We do not find any real physical
relationship to the past (the past no longer exists!) But rather we
recognise the role which the past once played.
But there is no physical
relationship to the past, only an imagined relationship.
Consequently the probability laws of thermodynamics cannot be used
in the direction of the past either. The latter are exclusively
valid in the direction of the future. Thus entropy increases
exclusively in the direction of the future and not in the direction
of the past. The latter does not even exist: in the direction of the
The shape of the laws of nature is time-symmetric. But only its
applicability is not such.
OF TIME THEORY
Hans Reichenbach explains the history time arrow with the entropy time arrow (The Direction of Time p.186) :
These considerations show why registering instruments can record only the past, and not the future, and why information defines the same time direction as growing entropy. The registering of information reveals the unidirectional nature of time, because only a past cause can produce a correspondence between signs and physical data, and because an increasing amount of information represents the order of a space ensemble which calls for explanation in terms of a past cause. The time direction of information is the direction imprinted upon the universe by its statistical isotropy.
This means the following:
If there is no entropy time arrow, then there is no history time arrow and no causal time arrow at all.
No entropy time arrow...
no time arrow at all ! ! !
In a chemical equilibrium there is no entropy time arrow at all. The past enropy is just the same as the future entropy. If we follow this argumentation then there can`t be any difference between the past and the future!
In a chemical equilibrium there is no entropy time arrow. Following Reichenbach there is no time arrow at all.
This is wrong for trimolecular reactions in a chemical equilibrium!
Such a trimolecular reaction looks like this:
A + B + C --> AB + C
If Reichenbach is right this reaction must take place as often as the time-revers reaction namely the bimolecular reaction:
AB + C ---> A + B + C
This is simply not the case.
We know that on one trimolecular reaction there are 5000 ( ! ) bimolecular reactions.
This proofs: Reichenbach is wrong.
The entropy time arrow is not the true explanation of the history time arrow.
The true cause of the entropy time arrow and the history time arrow gives the time theory:
The basic probability of the laws of nature relates exclusively to the future and the phenomenon of the past is only its consequence.
There is much more probability for the reaction of two molecules then for the reaction of three molecules (namely 1 : 5000).
This sentence is true in the direction of the future - because the future is open.
This sentence is wrong in the direction of the "past" - because there is no past.
Reichenbach: "The time direction of information is the direction imprinted upon the universe by its statistical isotropy."
This is true and the cause of this statistical isotropy is given by Time Theory.
Roger Penrose describes the following experiment:
It is remarkable
how many physicists seem tacitly to assume that these two
probabilities are the same. (I myself, have been guilty of this
presumption, cf. Penrose 1979b, p. 584.) However, these two
probabilities are likely to be wildly different, in fact, and only
the former is correctly given by quantum mechanics!
Let us see this in a very
simple case. [...] (p. 356).
Time-irreversibility of R in a simple quantum experiment.
The probability that the photo-cell detects a photon given
that the source emits one is exactly one-half; but the probability
that the source has emitted a photon given that the
photo-cell detects is certainly not one-half. (p. 348)
We note that the correct
experimental answer to this question is not "one-half " at
If the photo-cell indeed
registers, then it is virtually certain to this question that the
photon came from the lamp
and not from the laboratory wall!
In the case of our time-reserved question, the quantum-mechanical
calculation has given us completely the wrong answer!
The implication of this is that the rules for the R part of
quantum mechanics simply cannot be used for such reversed-time
questions. If we wish to calculate the probability of a past
state on the basis of a known future state, we get quite the
wrong answers if we try to adopt the standard R procedure of
simply taking the quantum-mechanical amplitude and squaring its
modulus. It is only for calculating the probabilities of future
states on the basis of past states that this procedure
works--and there it works superbly well! It seems to me to be clear
that, on this basis, the procedure R cannot be
It is an amazing fact that
this simple procedure can be applied in the future direction without
any other knowledge of a system needing to be invoked.
However, if one attempts to apply these procedures in the
past direction (i.e. for retrodiction rather than prediction) then
one goes sadly wrong. Any number of excuses, extenuating
circumstances, or other factors may be invoked to explain why
the amplitude-squaring procedure does not correctly apply in the
past-direction, but the fact remains that it does not. Such excuses
are simply not needed in the future-direction! The procedure R
as it is actually used
, is just not
This experiment is a tremendous confirmation of my model of time.
The quantum mechanical probability is valid in the direction of the
future because the future is the basic probability.
It is invalid in the direction of the past because the
past does not exist.